Launch Date: 22.10.2008

Chandrayaan-1 is the first Indian planetary mission to explore the origin and evolution of the moon. The spacecraft with a lift-off mass of 1380 kg carried 11 Scientific Instruments; five from ISRO and six opportunity payload instruments through International collaboration from various countries.

It was launched successfully onboard PSLV-C11 on October 22, 2008 from SDSC, SHAR. After the successful completion of Lunar Orbit Manoeuvering, Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft was placed into a lunar polar orbit of 100 km above the lunar surface on November 12, 2008. The Moon Impact Probe (MIP), powered using a battery and data transmission links with the orbiter, impacted the lunar surface on November 14, 2008, at 20:31 IST near the Shackleton crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The MIP which had a tri-colour painted on it, made India, the fourth nation in the world to touch Earth’s only natural satellite, the Moon. The Moon Impact Probe had captured images of the Moon’s surface as it descended toward its impact on the lunar surface. The lunar mission was termed successful as it achieved 95 percent of its planned objectives. Amongst its many

achievements, the discovery of the presence of Water / Hydroxyl molecules in lunar soil detected by the Moon Minerology Measuring Instrument (M3) of NASA as well as the mass spectrometer in MIP is a major breakthrough that would change the face of lunar exploration.

The state-of-the-art sub-systems designed and developed for this mission has proven our technological supremacy in the deep space mission & has paved the way for future innovations.Establishment of the Ground Segment consisting ofthree major elements viz. Indian Deep Space Network(IDSN including 18m and 32 m diameter antennae),Spacecraft Control Center (SCC) and Indian Space ScienceData Center (ISSDC) was a major achievement. Missionplanning and operations for perfect lunar orbit insertionnew techniques for attitude sensing and stabilization inand operation of the payloads in lunar orbit and adopting extreme hostile conditions were achievements with noparallels


Remote Sensing, Planetary Science


1380 kg (Mass at lift off)

Spacecraft  power

Solar Array:709 WattsBatteries:Li-ion (27 Ah)


3 - axis stabilised using reaction wheel and attitude control thrusters, sun sensors, star sensors, fibre optic gyros and accelerometers for attitude determination.


Scientific Payloads from India
a) Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)
b) Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI)
c) Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI)
d) High Energy X - ray Spectrometer (HEX)
e) Moon Impact Probe(MIP)

Scientific Payloads from abroad
f) Chandrayaan-I X-ray Spectrometer (CIXS)
g) Near Infrared Spectrometer (SIR - 2)
h) Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA)

i) Miniature Synthetic Aperature Radar (Mini SAR)
j) Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)
k) Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM)

Launch Site

SDSC, SHAR, Sriharikota

Launch Vehicle



100 km x 100 km : Lunar Orbit

Mission Life

2 years


1. Discovery of traces ofwater on moon

2. Lunar Global Imaging

3. First lunar mission withInternational participationto alarge extent

4. Establishment of processesfor collaboration with other spaceagencies.

5. Successful maneuvering fororbit around earth and moon

6.Successful operation toinject the Spacecraft into lunarorbit requiring high precision maneuversand planning

7.Understanding of thermalenvironment in lunar orbit whichwill help in achieving better performance infuture.

8.Need for process hardeningfor selection of reliable highperformance components to beused in future missions

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